Hors D'œuvres: Small appetizers served in advance of the meal, frequently consisting of cold cuts of meat, deviled eggs, cheeses, sausages, smoked meats, and caviar. They may be served at the table as the introductory course (which seems to be the custom of service on Titanic), or offered independently at a gathering before the meal (as on the Queen Mary).
Notes: Hors D'œuvres are labor intensive, and cooks are cautioned that the finished article must not show signs of carelessness, and not to introduce economies by reliance on vegetables. “….presentation of half-used dishes.” is a further caution to stewards and cooks that trays presented to passengers should always look full, and not picked over.
Canapés: A specific type of hors d’œuvre consisting of a savory topping placed on a base of cracker, bread, or pastry. The canapé is eaten with the fingers and sized to be consumed in a bite or two.
Note: "Ritz-type biscuits" refers to the American brand Ritz Cracker. "Demi-puff" refers to a light, flaky dough typically associated with pastry.
Consommé: Not to be confused with the modern beef broth out of a can, this is a difficult dish to prepare. Usually it is placed early on the menu because of its excellent taste, yet it is not so filling as to spoil later courses. It is served very hot and must be served promptly, otherwise the gelatin will congeal.
Note: Consommé is an expensive dish in which large amounts of meat produce a small amount of soup. The “boosting” referred to is a caution against taking obvious economies.
Thick Soups: A soup that utilizes a thickener: purées are vegetable soups thickened with a starch; bisques are puréed shellfish or vegetables which uses cream as a thickener. The category also includes cream soups and veloutés, covered in the next section.
Cream Soups and Veloutés: These are further types of “thick soups”. Cream soups are typically thickened with béchamel sauce; and veloutés, which are thickened with dairy or eggs.
Note: These soups are similar to sauces, and share some of the critiques found in that section. Cooks should be on guard against complacency. Roux is the foundation of many sauces, being a cooked compound of flour and fat, typically butter. The specific complaint is that the roux is not being cooked correctly, and the flour can still be directly tasted.